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Red-hot platinum Platinum

The Labor-Platina Ltd. in Hungary (EU) alloys pure platinum (Pt99.95) and iridium or rhodium to platinum-iridium alloys, iridium alloyed platinum (e.g. PtIr5), platinum-rhodium alloys, rhodium alloyed platinum (PtRh), and supplies these products, also products made of platinum-gold alloy, gold alloyed platinum (PtAu) and silver (Ag).

Fineness of Platinum

International standards define 5 qualities of Platinum:

  1. Jewel Platinum:
    Platinum with a fineness 950/1000
    Containing 5% palladium or copper. For technical aims e.g. Labware unusable
  2. Technically pure platinum:
    Platinum with a fineness 995/1000 (2N fineness)
    Usable for technical aims e.g. Labware
  3. Chemically pure platinum:
    Platinum with a fineness 999/1000 (3N fineness)
    The impurity is less then 1‰, its verification requires minimum chemistry methods
  4. Physically pure platinum:
    Platinum with a fineness 999.9/1000 (4N fineness)
    The verification of impurity requires minimum physical methods
  5. Spectroscopewise pure platinum:
    Platinum with a fineness 999.99/1000 (5N fineness)
    The impurity can be verified with a spectroscope only

Platinum is a easy deformable, weak metal, so for the production of Labware we alloy platinum with iridium or rhodium, to rise its solidity, heat resistance and its resistance to chemical influences.

Precious and platinum metals useability for alloys

Six of the Platinum Group Metals (PGMs), just as their often together occuring ores, have a high melting point and a great resistance to chemical influences.

Similar to how these metals take place in the periodic table we can make a difference between two subgroups. The upper row in the table is the lighter, the under row in the table represent the heavier group, which have approximately a two times higher specific weight.

Each precious metal has its couple with similar characteristics in the other group. Ruthenium is similar to osmium. Unalloyed are both not machinable. Rhodium is similar to irridium. Both are quite hard precious metals and not easily to machine. Palladium is similar to platinum. Both are softer metals and easily to machine. Because of that they are the most popular precious metals in the industry. Like gold to silver is platinum the more expensive couple of palladium.

The electric conductivity of each pair is similar, too.

Physical data of platinum and other precious metals

Metal Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver
Atomic weight 101.07 102.91 106.42 107.87
Density g/cm³ 12.45 12.41 12.02 10.49
Melting point °C 2334 1964 1555 961.8
Boiling point °C 4150 3695 2963 2162
Specific heat kal/gr °C   0.058 0.059 0.057
Heat of fusion kal/gr °C   52 34.2 25.9
Heat conductivity kal/cm °C sk   0.210 0.168 0.096
Expansion coefficient 0.096 0.085 0.117 0.195
  40°C 40°C 20°C 20°C
Electric conductivity m/Ω mm² 9.6 19.6 9.3 62.5
Temperature coefficient of electrical resistance α in K   4.43 • 10^³ 3.77 • 10^³ 4.10 • 10^³
Metal Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold
Atomic weight 190.23 192.23 195.08 197.00
Density g/cm³ 22.61 22.65 21.45 19.32
Melting point °C 3033 2446 1768 1064
Boiling point °C 5012 4424 3825 2856
Specific heat kal/gr °C 0.031 0.032 0.038 0.031
Heat of fusion kal/gr °C 35 28 23.7 15.9
Heat conductivity kal/cm °C sk   0.111 0.1664 0.7461
Expansion coefficient 0.066 0.056 0.089 0.140
  40°C 20°C 20°C 20°C
Electric conductivity m/Ω mm² 9.7 18.2 9 45
Temperature coefficient of electrical resistance α in K 4.2 • 10^³ 3.93 • 10^³ 3.92 • 10^³ 3.98 • 10^³

Commonly used alloys

Platinum Alloy Use
Pt 95% Ir 5% Labware platinum,
raw material for Labware
and industrial uses
Pt 95% Rh 5%
Pt 90% Rh 10%
Pt 95% Au 5%
Pt 90% Ir 10% raw material for special uses
Pt 85% Ir 15%
Pt 80% Ir 20%
Pt 65% Ir 35%
Pt 80% Rh 20%
Pt 96% Cu 4% raw material for jewels
Pt 95% Cu 5%

These are only the most common alloys. Apart from these also other alloys/materials can be ordered from us.

Technical data of some alloys

Material Tensile strength [kg/mm²] Elasticity
[%]
Brinell hardness [kg/mm²] Solution in hot aqua reqia, proportion
emollited on 1000°C
chemical pure Pt 24 35 55 1.0
PtIr5 (Pt95%-Ir5%) 30 15 100 0.5
PtIr10 (Pt90%-Ir10%) 48 13 140 0.25
PtIr15 (Pt85%-Ir15%) 64 12 185 0.17
PtIr20 (Pt80%-Ir20%) 80 11 230 0.0

Multipliers

Usefull multipliers for calculating
the weight of Labware made of other precious metals

Material/Alloy Multiplier
Ir 1.09
Pt 1.00
Au80%-Pt20%) 0.92
AuPt10 (Au90%-Pt10%) 0.91
Au 0.90
AuPd10 (Au90%-Pd10%) 0.87
AuPd20 (Au80%-Pd20%) 0.83
AuPd30 (Au70%-Pd30%) 0.80
AgPt30 (Ag70%-Pt30%) 0.64
AgPt20 (Ag80%-Pt20%) 0.59
AgPt10 (Ag90%-Pt10%) 0.54
Rh 0.58
Pd 0.56
PdAg50 (Pd50%-Ag50%) 0.50
Ag 0.49